Faculty & Staff Profile

Rutherford Cardinal Johnson

Business Department
(218) 281-8191

Research Interests

  • Behavioral Economics, especially the relationship between culture, religion, and/or psychological factors on economic decision making.

  • Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Economic Geography

  • Probabilistic Demand analysis, Choice Waves, and Multipoint Gravitational Models.

Awards, Distinctions, and Honors

  • Fellow of the P.R. Society of Arts and Sciences

  • Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society

  • Gamma Sigma Delta (Agriculture Honor Society)

  • Kentucky Colonel

  • Omicron Delta Epsilon (Economics Honor Society)

  • The Explorers Club (2006-2016)

Selected Publications

  • Rutherford Card. Johnson. "The Psychology of the Overview Effect and Global Economic Ethics."Psychology. Vol. 9. No. 7. July 2018.

  • "Ask the Experts: Important Features of Credit Cards for International Travel" Wallet Hub. 23 July 2018.

  • "Decoding the North Korean Game: a strategic and economic perspective." Qrius (formerly the Indian Economist). Evening Edition, 21 July 2018.

  • "Taxation, Socialism, and Social Justice." Newsletter of the Royal Economic Society. Iss. 182. July 2018.

  • "Viewpoint: Drive to help must come from within." Grand Forks Herald. Saturday, 7 July 2018.

  • Rutherford Johnson and Eddie Walker II. "A Probabilistic Shortage of Private Land Opened to Hunters in Northwest Minnesota." Modern Economy. Vol. 9. No. 1. January 2018.

  • Johnson, Rutherford Card. "An Economic Multipoint Gravitational Model Expression Of A Transactional Analysis Game: An Application To Recreational Private Land Use Decisions." Journal of Applied Business Research.. Vol. 33. No. 4. 2017.

  • Johnson, Rutherford Card. "Choice Waves and Strategic Interaction. " Journal of Technology Research.Vol. 7. March 2017.

  • Johnson, Rutherford Card. " The Inclusion of Geo-Cultural, Historical, and Legal Considerations in the Analysis of Anglican and Roman Ecclesiastical Division." Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion.. Vol. 13. 2017.

  • “A Probabilistic Demand Application in the American Cracker Market.” International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics. July 2016.

  • "Geo-Cultural and Legal Insights into the Ongoing Debates within the Roman and Anglican Communions." West East Journal of Social Sciences. April 2016.

  • "High altitude mountain economics: Measuring the effects of extreme conditions on consumer behavior." Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business. 2015.

  • "Geographical and cultural insights into the Episcopal Church and the crisis in the Anglican Communion." Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies. 2015.

  • "Decline in Church Giving in the United States during the Recession: A Spatial Application of Church Waves." Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business. 2015.

  • "The Choice Wave: An Alternative Description of Consumer Behavior." Research in Business and Economics Journal. 2012.

  • Hawtrey, Kim; and Rutherford Johnson. "On Moral Atrophy and the Global Financial Crisis." Journal of Religion and Business Ethics. 2010.

  • Johnson, Rutherford; Wuyang, Hu, Angelos Pagoulatos, and David Debertin. “Response to General Health Information in the Food Industry: A Panel Case Study in the Domestic Cracker Market” Journal of Food Products Marketing. 2011.

  • Rutherford Johnson. "Can Educators be Motivated by Management by Objective Systems in Academia?" Journal of Academic Ethics. 2011.

Educational Background

  • Grad.Cert. in Business Communications - Harvard University Extension School

  • Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics - University of Kentucky

  • M.S. in Economics - Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech)

  • B.S. with Honor in Applied Physics - Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech)


  • Ceremonial, Etiquette, and Protocol

  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

  • Historical Research Methods

  • Strategic Management and Communications

  • Technical Writing and Editing

Other Accomplishments

  • CONFERENCE CHAIR: West East Institute International Academic Conference. Harvard Faculty Club. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. August 2018.

  • CONFERENCE: Rutherford Card. Johnson and Eddie Walker II. "Parallel Rationality in Market Segmentation vs Transaction: An Example in Recreational Markets and Land Use." West East Institute International Academic Conference. Harvard Faculty Club. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. August 2018.

  • CONFERENCE: Walker II, E. G., Johnson, R. C., & Jones, M. D. "Differences among Northwest Minnesota residents and non-residents in willingness to pay for regional recreational activities." 2018 National Outdoor Recreation Conference: Building Resilient Communities, Environments, and Economies, Burlington, VT. April 2018.

  • CONFERENCE: Rutherford Card. Johnson and Eddie Walker II. "International Implications of “Relationship Markets” between Hospitality Operations and Private Land Owners considered from the standpoint of Economic Parallel Rationality." AABRI International Conference, San Antonio, USA. March 2018.

  • CONFERENCE: Oxana Wieland, Rutherford Card. Johnson, and Abdulaziz Ahmed. "Reflective Learning: The Harvard Global Case Competition as a Student Retention Experience." ACBSP Regional Conference. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. October 2017.

  • CONFERENCE: Rutherford Card. Johnson. "Incorporating a Geocultural Dimension in Classroom Education." 2017 Annual Meeting of the ACBSP. Anaheim, California.

  • CONFERENCE: Rutherford Card. Johnson. "Beyond One-Size-Fits All: Teaching in a Multicultural Classroom." 2017 Teaching Professor Conference. St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

  • CONFERENCE: "Geo-Cultural and Legal Insights into The Ongoing Debates within the Roman and Anglican Communions." WEI International Academic Conference on Education, Humanities, and the Social Sciences. Barcelona, Spain. March 2016.

  • CONFERENCE: "A Spatial Economic Analysis of Potential Contributing Factors to Recent Declines in Church Giving in the United States." Annual Conference of the Southeastern Division of the American Association of Geographers. Athens, Georgia. November 2014.

  • CONFERENCE: "Executive Talk on Advancing Charitable Giving and Service." Executive Conference on Charitable Giving. Raleigh. November 2014.

  • CONFERENCE: "A Theological and Mathematical Model of the Loss of Religious Values Following "Excessive Affluence" and Its Potential Contribution to an Economic Crisis." American Economics Association annual meeting. January 2010.

  • CONFERENCE: "The Loss of Religious Values Following "Excessive Affluence" and Its Potential Contribution to an Economic Crisis." China Taiwan Trans-Sea Economics and Finance Conference. May 2009.

  • CONFERENCE: Rutherford Card. Johnson and Eddie Walker, II. "Canadians Flying South for Recreation? A Survey-Based Attribute Valuation Analysis in Northwest Minnesota." International Conference on Economics, Society, and Management. Toronto, ON. September 2017. (Received conference award for best paper in Economics and Marketing.)

  • CONFERENCE: Johnson, Rutherford. "Poverty and Wealth: Moral Issues in the Global Financial Crisis." WEI International Academic Conference on Business and Economics. Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts. August 2016.

  • CONFERENCE: Johnson, Rutherford. "Choice Waves and Strategic Interaction." AABRI International Conference. Albuquerque, New Mexico. September 2016.

  • CONFERENCE: Johnson, Rutherford. "A Multipoint Gravitational Model Expression of a Subconscious Transactional Analysis Game." 2016 International Academic Conference on Business. Las Vegas, Nevada. October 2016.

University Committee Memberships

  • UMC Business Department Curriculum Committee

  • UMC Business Department Quality Committee

  • UMC Student Conduct Committee

Professional Memberships

  • Royal Economic Society

  • Società Italiana degli Economisti (Italian Economics Society)

  • Member, Accreditation Council of Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP)

  • International Association of Agricultural Economists

  • American Economics Association

  • Royal Statistical Society

  • Agricultural and Applied Economics Association

  • Harvard Extension Business Society

Local Community Memberships

  • National Eagle Scout Association



Rutherford Johnson, PhD is an educator specializing in consumer behaviour and economic geography. He has been a professor in South Korea and the United States and a visiting faculty member at his alma mater, Georgia Tech.

Dr. Johnson's undergraduate work at Georgia Tech was in Applied Physics. He stayed to complete a master's degree in Economics before going to the University of Kentucky to complete a PhD in agricultural economics. He is currently pursuing additional studies at the Harvard University Extension School.

As an economic and senior strategic policy consultant, Dr. Johnson has provided marketing, economic, media, strategic policy, international affairs, and design services for various businesses and non-profits around the world. His research includes work in behavioural economics, international economics, ethics in business, finance, and economics; and regional geographical economic analysis incorporating GIS. He developed the Theory of Parallel Rationality and the mathematical Choice Wave model of probabilistic behaviour.

Dr. Johnson's interests include high-altitude alpine mountaineering, equestrian, music, and history, particularly of the Holy Roman Empire and medieval and Renaissance Italy. He is also a qualified mariner with additional certifications in navigation and maritime search and rescue. 

Primary Languages: English and Italian.

Other Languages: Russian, French, Spanish, German, Korean, and Latin.

In the News

April 13, 2017
Five University of Minnesota Crookston students from the Business Department recently participated in the 2017 Harvard Global Case Competition, culminating in a trip to the Harvard University in early April.